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Average daily temperatures of January-22,7 °, February-22,8 °. Duration of summer on the coast of 79 days. The Bezmorozny period lasts 67 days. The last frosts happen in June, the first — in August. Average daily temperature of June 11,8 °, August 12,6 °. The average annual amount of precipitation on the coast in the settlement of Davshe makes 407,6 mm. In the summer about 153 mm of rains drop out, their most part usually is the share of the second half of July and August.

In valleys of the rivers of Ezovk, Big, Talamush and Davshe are located thermal sources with water temperature in some of them above 70 °C. In the territory of the reserve there is no continuous permafrost, but in some places, especially on peat bogs, at a depth of 1 m lenses of focal permafrost meet.

The northeast coast of Baikal differs in severe continental climate. In this area sharply expressed lines of the east Siberian climate are combined with features which are given by proximity of Baikal with an ulterior motive called sometimes by "sea". Elements of sea climate prevail in the summer and here in the fall. In the winter when Baikal is covered with ice, continentality is sharply shown.

Eleven rivers and small rivers with a set of inflows originate on slopes of Barguzin Range and create a dense hydrographic network of the reserve - Upper courses of river valleys usually represent characteristic bowl-shaped expansions and carry the local name of "yards". On the origin it most often trough valleys — valleys of ancient glaciers, are usually cut In boards of trough valleys deep penalties.

Modern scientific researches in the reserve are directed, first of all, on implementation of long-term programs of monitoring of a condition of natural complexes of northeast Cis-Baikal. Besides inventory of various groups of animals, plants and their communities much attention is paid to long-term control on constant sites and routes: loudspeakers of number of mammals, the birds living in a napochvenny layer of insects, to the accounting of productivity of berry-pickers, stationary supervision over seasonal development of plants. Over the last 5 years in the reserve 10 research subjects, on 3-4 subjects annually were carried out.

The enormous Baikal hollow stretching on a joint of the Baikal raising and the Average-Siberian plateau is surrounded with a chain of ridges among which Barguzin differs in the greatest absolute heights (to 3000 m).

In the territory of the reserve in the Alpine belt mountain meadow and mountain-tundra soils, are widespread in the subalpine — mountain and forest cespitose and humous. In the top part of a forest belt (to 1400 m) are widely developed mountain and forest podsolic, also mountain and forest cespitose and podsolic soils are noted. In the lower part of a forest belt under bed curtains of the listvennichno-pine woods soils humous and podsolic, in zelenomoshny cedar forests and in the deciduous woods — humous and podsolic gleevaty, on the pribaykalsky plain on the considerable square — peat - are developed.

The axial part of ridge within Barguzin Reserve is put by sedimentary and crystal and izverzhenny intrusive breeds among which in many places granites prevail. Only small sites, mainly along a coastal strip of Baikal and on valleys of the rivers, are filled with friable quarternary deposits.

Overall performance of inspection decides both the amount of precautionary work on the population, and its providing with transport and means of communication. Until recently the reserve had own YaK-12 plane, the Cheetah hovercraft, and also motor ship, motor-boats, snowmobiles "Snow-storm", cars. Now vehicles and radio stations in the majority are worn-out and demand replacement.

Bowls and hollows of a glacial origin filled with water gave rise to numerous mountain lakes in sources of the rivers and to lakes in a strip of the foothills. Almost all rivers in upper courses have typically mountain character with a rapid noisy current, ice transparent water. Sometimes it is visible already from names of the rivers — such as Shumilikh or Gromotukh. Where the course is partitioned off by exits of strong stone breeds, falls and rough thresholds meet. Except a usual flood during intensive thawing of snow in mountains, floods and at the beginning of winter are often observed. The snow and ice porridge floating in the overcooled water often creates jams, and small rivers in places leave from bere-, comrade. In November — the beginning of December of the river, On local expression, "boil". On the equal and lowered sites of river valleys and keys during the whole winter happen frost - Features of a structure of river valleys and the hydrological mode of the rivers significantly affect shape of vegetation near reservoirs. So, under the influence of naledy the taiga woods along river coast are replaced by extensive thickets-ku-starnikov and inundated meadows.

Fauna of Barguzin Reserve typically taiga, but with some features caused by a mountainous terrain and direct proximity of Baikal. The fauna includes 41 species of mammals, 274 bird species, 6 species of reptiles, 3 species of amphibians, about 50 species of fish and over 1200 revealed species of insects.